The Federal Map That Madhesis and Tharus Want

The people of Nepal have been saddened by the deaths of several civilians, security personnel and even an infant in different parts of the country. This senseless violence and loss of lives in Nepal can be attributed to a hasty drafting of a new constitution and demarcation of federal states without consultation with all stakeholders. 18 people have lost their lives so far among which 12 are civilians and 6 are police personnel. The level of violence and the number of deaths is approaching that incurred during the Jana Andolan (Peoples’ Revolution) in 2006 that ousted King Gyanendra. A total of 25 people were killed during that revolution.

Why Are Madhesis and Tharus Protesting?

Every Nepali with a conscience is forced to think, “Why is this violence happening?” Many also attribute this violence primarily to the protests by Madhesis and Tharus, whose demands are allegedly unjustified. As a Madhesi, I was also forced to think, “What the hell do Madhesis and Tharus want? Why are Madhesis turning out in thousands on the streets to protest and call for strikes?” Some Nepalis of hilly origin have accused India for fueling this instability. Others have insinuated that Madhesis are lured by financial incentives, primarily in the hopes of receiving 50 lakh rupees (5 million rupees) if they die during the protests. While I will not deny that 50 lakhs is a tempting sum, I find it difficult to believe that any sane human being would want to die in the hopes of receiving a lucrative posthumous sum. More importantly, this accusation is not true. Hifajat Miya, one of the Madhesis who was killed in Parsa district on August 31 by Nepal Police received a meagre sum of 15,000 rupees by a Madhesi political party to cover funeral expenses since his family was unable to do so. You do the math, that is 0.03% of 50 lakhs.

What do Madhesis and Tharus Want?

Money may be an incentive but there is a stronger incentive that drives thousands of Madhesis and Tharus to the streets and that is: to demand equal rights in the constitution and demarcation of federal states that abide prior agreements. This is a key fact that is missed in most of the media reports. The reports are rife about protests, strikes, ‘jhadaps’, ‘lathi charge’ and so on but fail to clearly dictate what do Madhesis want and why they are protesting. Since several years, Madhesis and Tharus have been advocating for a separate state for themselves. This is sometimes seen by people of hilly origin as a divisive act. They fear that Madhesis and Tharus would then subsequently want to separate from Nepal and perhaps annex to India. This fear is unfounded. Because India would have no interest in these regions. Regions in state 2 and 5 have among the lowest Human Development Index (HDI). Similarly, among the 20 districts with the highest per capita income, only two fall in state 2 and only one in state 5 (see our analysis). These states also lack any major hydroelectric power generation plant. In short, these two states are poor in human development, economic development and energy resources. Agriculture is the only strength of these regions.

A common question is: “We have seven states now, instead of six so, why are Madhesis and Tharus still protesting? What do they want?” See the federal map below that shows proposed seven federal states. Madhesis are populous in state 2 (brown color) and Tharus in State 5 (light blue).

Federalism Map in Nepal - Seven States_Madhesi Youth.jpeg

In political terms, Madhesis and Tharus want two states, both of which consist of only flat plains. In other words, no hilly regions should be included in these two states, this is their main demand, as far I can understand. The current federal map with seven states has three areas that are contentious:

  • Inclusion of Jhapa, Morang, and Sunsari in the East to State 2
  • Continuation of State 2 and 5 through Chitwan and Nawalparasi. State 2 and 5 should remain joined.
  • Inclusion of Kailali and Kanchanpur in State 5 and removal of hilly districts

14 Federal States Model in 2010 Passed in Constituent Assembly

At first glance, all of this seems divisive but before we jump to conclusions, lets examine a historical fact. On Jan 20, 2010, State Reconstruction Committee of Constituent Assembly passed a federal structure of 14 states supported by UCPNM and UML. 14 proposed states were as follows:-

East hills: Limbuwan, Kirat, Sherpa, Sunkoshi,
Central hills: Newa, Tamsaling,
West hills: Narayani, Tamuwan, Magarat, Jadan, Karnali, Khaptad,
Terai: Mithila-Bhojpura-Koch-Madhesh, Lumbini-Awadh-Tharuwan. [Source: Federal Nepal : Timeline and Proposals]

The map with 14 federal states is shown below.

Figure 1: 14 Federal States Passed in Constituent Assembly Elections by UCPNM and UML
Figure 1: 14 Federal States Passed in Constituent Assembly Elections supported by UCPNM and UML

It may surprise you to note that Jhapa, Sunsari, and Morang were included in Madhesh (State 2 as in 2015 map). Similarly, Kailali and Kanchanpur was included in Tharuwan (State 5 as in 20115 map). If this was agreed and passed in 2010 by Constituent Assembly, supported by UML then why was the map changed in 2015 that has stirred Madhesis and Tharus? A notable journalist, Prashant Jha, has written extensively about the reason behind this gerrymandering.

Three far eastern districts of the Tarai (Morang, Sunsari and Jhapa) were merged with the hills into one province  – this was primarily done because an influential leader, KP Oli, came from the region. Madhesi political groups which had sought a plains-only province in the eastern Tarai objected to the demarcation and took to the streets. The oldest Tarai party, Sadbhavana, resigned from the CA. Two far western districts (Kailali and Kanchanpur) were merged with the western hills into another province — this was done at the behest of another influential leader, Sher Bahadur Deuba. Tharus, an ethnic group of the Tarai, who have ethnic and kinship links with Tharus on the Indian side, also objected to this demarcation. They demanded a Tharu plains-only province in the western Tarai. [Hindustan Times]

11 Federal States Model in 2012 by State Reconstruction Commission

Similarly, on Jan 19, 2012, State Reconstruction Commission proposed two separate federal structures, one with 11 states (including one non territorial state) and another with 6 states. The 11 federal states structure has been lauded by a consensus of several groups, civil societies, and scholars for its foresight, inclusiveness and attempt to bolster marginalized groups. The map below shows the 11 federal states that were proposed. [Source: Federal Nepal : Timeline and Proposals]

11 Federal States in Nepal
Figure 2: 11 Federal States proposed by State Reconstruction Commission.

Notice how Madhesh and Tharuwan have their own states and more importantly, it includes only regions consisting of flat plains and remain joined. Unlike the federal maps of 2015, this map was not carved out in silo by just one political party or Madhesis or Tharus or Limbuwans or Khambuwans or Magars. It was decided by an eight-member State Restructuring Commission (SRC) that was formed by major parties to recommend the Constituent Assembly (CA) a best possible model to federalize the country. The eight members in the commission were Malla K Sundar and Stella Tamang from the UCPN (Maoist), Ramesh Dhungel and Sabitri Thapa from the Nepali Congress, Bhogendra Jha and Sarbaraj Khadka from CPN (UML), and Krishna Hachhethu and Surendra Mahato from SLMM – the Madhesi Morcha. It was the best chance Nepal had to formulate a federalism model that was inclusive and acceptable to most of the people.

Have Madhesis and Tharus Gone Crazy or is the NC and UML leaders?

This brings us to the question: who is to blame for the recent senseless violence in Nepal? Most of the Nepali media has blamed the strikes imposed by Madhesis and Tharus for worsening of the situation.

Why is the Nepali media and Nepalis of hilly origin demonizing Madhesis and Tharus for demanding what had already been agreed by Constituent Assembly, supported by  NC and UML in 2010 and 2012?

The Nepali media has failed to mention or ask why Nepali Congress (NC) and UML backtracked from previous agreements and decided to engage in gerrymandering the boundaries of federal states in Madhesh and Tharuwan at the behest of their leaders, namely Sher Bahadur Deuba and KP Oli. This is a key question Nepali media and people have failed to ask NC and UML. This is the main reason why Madhesis and Tharus were forced to agitate yet again. Bamdev Gautam, the notorious UML home and defence minister abused his power to instruct Nepal Police to use excessive force against Madhesis and Tharu protesters. This further escalated the situation and resulted in unfortunate incidents in Tikapur, Parsa, and Kailali where civilians and policemen lost their lives. Gautam’s bold accusation that this movement is fueled by India and infiltrators from the South clearly demonstrates his racist attitudes and has served to act as an ethnic wedge to divide members of Pahadi and Madhesi communities. The human rights violations against Madhesis and Tharus is appalling and this was the primary motivation for me to write this article. I care little for politics but when civilians start dying at the hands of those who are meant to protect them, it spreads fear and instability. The rule of law breaks down and the whole nation is pushed into chaos.

One cannot help but wonder whether the leaders of ruling parties, NC and UML, are treating Madhesis and Tharus as second-class citizens by ignoring previous agreements, instructing Nepal Police to open fire at dissenting protesters, and dismissing their struggle as an Indian ploy?

If NC and UML had any intention of creating an inclusive federal map, they could do that easily by following previous recommendations. By simply adding another state – state 8, that separates Tharuwan from rest of state 5 and includes Kailali and Kanchanpur would end the protests by Tharus. Similarly, by including Jhapa, Sunsari, and Morang to State 2 would end the protests by Madhesis. The number of federal states would be still far less than 11 or 14 and their boundaries would be consistent with those proposed and agreed by them in 2010 and 2012.

If the ruling political parties, NC and UML, are unwilling to listen to the legitimate demands, what options do Madhesis and Tharus? How many more Tikapur and Kailali incidents will it take before this senseless violence will end? Only NC and UML have answers to these simple but dismal questions.

Puru Shah

Puru Shah is the founder of Madhesi Youth. For Madhesi Youth, he primarily writes about human rights issues and articles with an emphasis on data analysis & data visualization. His goal is to promote justice, equality, sustainable development, and youth empowerment in Nepal. Connect with Puru Shah on Twitter (@digitalsubway)

  • Think Like a Freak

    Pretty decent take on the issue. I appreciate your legitimate concern. The violence never really was and never really will be an answer to anything. Yet i couldn’t help but note that your entire write up is flowing in the line of ‘we Madheshi’ Vs ‘them pahadi’ rhetoric. It’s exactly this sentiment that is unsettling a lot of people, people who do sympathise with the cause of deprived people from Madhesh and other areas. I also don’t understand your insistence on ‘agreement of this year or that year’ as i don’t think normal, hard working people, be it ‘pahadi’ or ‘madheshi’ has anything to do with this division. All they know is they got to earn their living on their own and no one, not ‘pahadi leaders’ nor ‘madeshi leaders’ for that matter will come to their rescue. But if the ‘state division’ is the answer you think, then don’t it need to be designed as per ‘economic mandate’ rather than anything else? Also, when two brothers separate, how would one feel if the other insists on taking the land linked to the road all for himself? Think about it brother but don’t think i am trying to dissuade you from your cause. I wholeheartedly agree to the injustice you’re fighting but don’t forget there are millions of normal people labelled ‘pahadi’ or ‘madeshi’ and they might be facing difficulties just because they’ve been labelled that way. It’s not their fault and it’s injustice too.

  • Bibek Subedi

    What about Brahmin and Chettri and Dalit, don’t they need state?

    • ARPANA SINGH

      Everything with you , so you don’t worry .

      • विनय राज कोइराला

        I think limbu , rai, tamang ,newar etc need identity conservation so they require federal state. But i didn’t understand why madhesi require state because they had there own country named india in the south

  • Shasank

    Have you ever thought about the budget that is gonna need to run these states. You have easily purposed to increase the no of states but what abt economy???? You are purposing 8 9 states in small country lyk nepal.have you ever thought about the cost of supply of goods withine the country itself due to interstate taxes. Salary of mps,ministers and budget to run those offices.Fedrelism is not good for small country lyk nepal which is still struggling with its economy and natuaral desaster.And as far as protest is concerned I think that peoples who are actually on
    street doesn’t even know what they are fighting for. What they are doing is reading the scripts of madhashi leaders without even knowing whether it is for their betterment or just leaders insanity.Have you imagened after the interim constitution was formed how many political parties have grown lyk mushroom in Nepal especially in madheah. !! These madheshi leaders have done nothing in these years BT increased the no of parties jst for sake of seat in CA coz we have mixed election system now and parties are likely to get some seats in CA although their candidates have lost election and top leaders are going to be MP in any case.These leaders have never raised true voice of people. But have always managed to ignorant people als.

    • suvash bhagat

      सम्झौताका विषय देहाय बमोजिम छन्।
      १. मधेस आन्दोलनका क्रममा शहादत प्राप्त गरेकाहरुलाई सहिद घोषणा गर्ने र हालसम्म राहत नपाएका अंगभंग भएकाहरुलाई उचित राहत राज्यले उपलब्ध गराउने छ। यसै क्रममा आन्दोलनमा घाइते भएकाहरुको उपचार खर्चको व्यवस्था र शहादत प्राप्त गरेकाहरुलाई सहिद घोषणा गरी आश्रित परिवारलाई रु. १० लाखका दरले राहत उपलब्ध गराउने तथा गिरफ्तार व्यक्तिहरुलाई तत्काल रिहा गरिनेछ।
      २. मधेसी जनताको स्वायत्त मधेस प्रदेशको चाहनालगायत अन्य क्षेत्रका जनताको स्वायत्त प्रदेशसहितको संघीय संरचनाको आकांक्षालाई स्वीकार गरी नेपाल संघीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्रात्मक राज्य हुनेछ। संघीय संरचनामा केन्द्र र प्रदेशका बीच स्पष्टरुपमा शक्तिको बाँडफाँड सूचीको आधारमा गरिनेछ। प्रदेशहरु पूर्ण रुपले स्वायत्त र अधिकार सम्पन्न हुनेछन्। नेपालको सार्वभौमिककता, एकता र अखण्डालाई अक्षुण राख्दै स्वायत्त प्रदेशहरुको संरचना, केन्द्र र प्रदेशका सूचीहरुको पूर्ण विवरण र अधिकारको बाँडफाँड पूर्ण विवरण र अधिकार बाँडफाँड संविधानसभाबाट निर्धारण गरिनेछ।
      ३. संविधानसभा सदस्य निर्वाचन ऐन २०६४ को दफा ७ को उपदफा १४ मा रहेको २० प्रतिशतको वर्तमान कानुनी व्यवस्थाको सट्टा ३० प्रतिशत गरिनेछ।
      0४. सरकारले सुरक्षा अंगलगायत राज्यका सबै निकायहरुमा मधेसी, आदिवासी, जनताति, महिला, दलित, पिछडिएको क्षेत्र र अल्पसंख्यक समुदायको समावेशी समानुपातिक सहभागिता हुने गरी सरकारले नियुक्ति, बढुवा र मनोनयन अनिवार्यरुपले गर्नेछ।
      ५. नेपाली सेनालाई राष्ट्रिय स्वरुप प्रदान गर्न र समावेशी बनाउन मधेसी लगायत अन्य समुदायको समानुपातिक समावेशी र समूहगत प्रवेशलाई सुनिश्चित गरिनेछ।
      ६. नेपाल सरकार तथा संयुक्त लोकतान्त्रिक मधेसी मोर्चा, तराईमा संघर्षरत सबै सशस्त्र समूहहरुलाई शान्तिपूर्ण राजनीतिक प्रक्रियाका लागि वार्तामा आउन आग्रह गर्दै वार्ताबाट सबै समस्या समाधान गर्न आग्रह गर्दछ। यसको लागि नेपाल सरकारले तत्कालै अनुकूल वातावरण बनाउन आवश्यक कदम चाल्नेछ।
      आगामी चैत्र २८ गतेको संविधानसभा निर्वाचन शान्तिपूर्ण, हिंसामुक्त, निष्पक्ष, स्वच्छ र भयमुक्त वातावरणमा सम्पन्न गर्न सबैलाई अपिल गर्दछौं।
      ७. सरकार र मधेसी जनअधिकार फोरमबीच २०६४ भदौ १३ गते भएको २२ बुँदे सम्झौता अनुरुप बन्दी राखिएकाहरुको यथाशीघ्र रिहाइ, फोरमलगायत अन्य मधेसी नेता तथा कार्यकर्ताहरु माथि लगाइएका मुद्दाहरु अविलम्ब फिता गर्ने तथा सम्झौताका बाँकी बुँदाहरु नेपाल सरकारले अविलम्ब कार्यान्वयन गर्नेछ।
      ८. संयुक्त लोकतान्त्रिक मधेसी मोर्चाको आह्वानमा जारी रहेका आन्दोलनका सबै कार्यक्रमहरु तत्काल फिर्ता लिइएको छ।
      यस सम्झौतामा उल्लेख गरिएका विषयहरुको संवैधानिक, कानुनी, राजनीतिक एवं प्रशासनिक आदि जिम्मेवारी नेपाल सरकारको रहनेछ। सम्झौताको कार्यान्वयन अनुगमन गर्नका लागि सरकारले मोर्चासमेत सम्मिलित एक उच्चस्तरीय अनुगमन समिति गठन गरिनेछ।
      सम्झौतामा हस्ताक्षर गर्ने पक्षहरु:
      राजेन्द्र महतो
      राष्ट्रिय अध्यक्ष, सद्भावना पार्टी
      उपेन्द्र यादव
      केन्द्रीय संयोजक, मधेसी जनअधिकार फोरम, नेपाल
      महन्थ ठाकुर
      अध्यक्ष, तराई मधेस लोकतान्त्रिक पार्टी

      गिरिजाप्रसाद कोइराला
      प्रधानमन्त्री, नेपाल सरकार
      मिति– २०६४ फागुन १६ गते

      madhesi ppl fighting for this

      • ashis gautam

        kaha jhapa dekhi kanchanpur bhaneko chha ta. tyatikai. jha su mo ka le pradesh ek mai basne bhani sake ka chhan with high majority.

      • ashis gautam

        reply tyas pachhi aru sanga pani samjhauta bhayeko chha.

      • ashis gautam

        ani pradesh number dui diyeko chha ta.

  • namah

    nepalis from all walks of life – brahmin, dalit, etc. will easily assimilate in any foreign country – USA, UK, etc. with no one protesting for a separate madhesh in the middle of texas. so why do they think they can get away in Nepal? this is the 21st century. many are unemployed frustrated young men who need an outlet. who gives that? local goons/politicians. are madhesis the only ones who are unemployed? or limbus? or rais? it is a national issue – jobs, money, etc.

    what is REALLY needed is education, industry, internet, roads, hospitals, hotels, tourists, etc…and if Nepal is really serious about changing itself – then invest in hydropower…all this talk about pahadi, madhesi …just a lot of nonsense

  • Avinash

    Hello Think like a Freak, first of all, we are not going to separate. All Madhesis ask is for the power and authority to develop their home as best as they can. Clearly, that has not been done given our elongated, stretched centralized history! We just want to develop the southern belt so that we can serve Nepal better.

    Mr. Namah – I agree completely. Rather than talking nonsense, we should really start investing in education. But let me clear this out to you, If you ever visit a school in Madhesh; there are no books, no teachers no nothing. Now one could say there are no books and stuff in Karnali and other hills too! but, these places are inaccessible but terai? really? clearly, Ignored! I have heard stories from my grandfather that he used to study “Hamare Pradhan mantri “some Indian” he” because they got those Indian books. People in terai couldn’t even get to read works of Devkota or Acharya just because “hya elle padhera k garchha”. Though is is past, still Madhesh is Ignored and you will only see that when you visit: especially the villages!

    Mr. Shashank – Let me clear this out. While I agree that the number of political parties in madhesh is Insanely high, we have a word from the leaders that once our cause is successful, they are going to unite! Also, about your concern about the economy and interstate taxes; If madhesh is a state, we can utilise all of its potential and trust me Madhesh has the power to feed all of Nepal so that cuts the tax you pay to India! A win-win for all of us!

    Mr Bibek- Our concern is not religious or caste based federalism. Madhesi is neither a Caste nor a ethnic group. May be a religion then ? nah! so I hope this answers your question. We are a group of people who live in the southern plains of the country!

    • Think Like a Freak

      Hello Avinash, you got pretty good points. But you got me wrong. When i gave the analogy about ‘brothers and their separation’ what i actually meant was ‘separation in terms of resource and value’. What i fail to understand is why does it pain to ‘Madheshi leaders’ if they were to allow areas which have clear mixed population to be separated as ‘other state’? Also please don’t jumble up ‘tharus’ in your ‘single madhesh’ argument because we all know ‘Madeshi agendas’ as we know and ‘agendas of tharu’ are way different. If being ignored by ‘state’ is the thread that you are using to tie it up, then there are lot of people who could argue, much strongly and logically, for having a separate state for them. Tharu andolan has never been like how lot of ‘Madheshi andolan’ has been – remember, ‘pahadiya bhagao abhiyan’ few years back? I’ve lived in and around ‘tharu areas’ for long and never felt threatened even during those difficult times.

      I agree that certain ‘high caste’ people that you are referring to as ‘Pahadiya’ indeed are the culprits for a lot of sufferings but so can you say (which you didn’t) about the upper caste ‘Madheshi’ who have done nothing but to worsen the suffering of poor madheshi people. So please don’t sell ‘One Madesh’ as a silver bullet that will cure everything and certainly don’t blame ‘Pahdiya’ for all that ails Madeshi people. I bet you know that already as do everyone else. Any surprise on why the state isn’t buying those logics?

      • Avinash

        I couldn’t agree more mate. But let me add here, I never mentioned pahadiya or anything anywhere. All the time I was talking about how the state ignored Madhesis since the 1800s and yet again. I don’t belong to the madhesi morcha and I do not say that our leaders are the most “good” people. They are no better than the Current leadership! clearly, they have different political agendas and us, madhesi youth, do not advocate for all of them.

        If you remember the last madhesh protests, all of the southern belt was united and the cause was gaining more heat as it moved along in time. To cease the movement out some hypocrite leaders, mainly from the current set of dictators, convinced the tharu community being non-madhesi and hence establishing madhesi as a specific group of people in the east which is not true! This also divided the protests in two, hence the intensity faded out.

        Now if you see the current state formation, state 2 lacks behind everything..see http://www.madhesiyouth.com/data/federal-states-in-nepal/development-indicators-in-state-2-madhesh/ for more details..And if you have heard Jhal Nath Khanal mention “dhoti” pradesh, and KP oli compare dying citizens to falling mangoes, you can instantly see that they don’t care about state number 2. This is the least resourceful district. So, if the leaders really cared about state 2, they should have atleast added some resourceful districts to it! plus the attachment of every state to india clearly shows that they don’t intend to use birgunj for trade anymore! Don’t be mistaken here, I am speaking on behalf of Madhesis, not the madhesi leaders.

        I know about the pahadiya bhagao moment and that was inhumane. I am not going to argue that we were right doing that, but I just want you to know that once you’ve lived years under supression, you are bound to explode and fight back. Usually the innocent are the victims 🙁

        Madhesi people couldn’t enter kathmandu without visa. Madhesi people weren’t included in the army. Some political agendas even said that madhesis were indians and they needed to be removed from the country. Some might say that not all pahadis are to be blamed but the mahendravaadis, I agree 🙂

        Yes a lot more people could argue about the state business but madhesis represent onethird of the country. So please don’t push me in to rabindra Mishra’s logic of comparing Madhesis to Kashmiri and the Gujrat clashes 🙂

        In the end I respect your views, and your feeling of uniting the country for a better Nepal. But this can’t happen unless you address everyone equally. Plus they announces holiday and “deepawali” while half the country mourns. Think about what it does to the angry mob and the people who lost family !

        • namah

          Oli is crazy…as his henchman…khanal…your heart bleeds…so does ours…

        • Symphony

          You guys are talking like only the madhesis was under opression. believe me mate every one was under opression only some elite cast bahuns were on the gov. you guys are talking like you do not have state at all and u do not have rights at all. You guys have been given a state.But you guys are making a scene saying you guys have not been given their right at all. Why are you not happy. You guys do not basis as well. Madhesis are not clear majority it sunsari , jhapa and morang. Clearly the states are divided equally taking into national intereset. But you guys want complete power disregarding other peoples interest and want complete monopoly. This is certainly not coming from a good side. This is complete evil trying to destroy everyone but we be in power. You guys have to understand the country cannot be divided into you everything and others be under your mercy. This is being divided in a fair manner. If it will be divided in the your way( citing your rights and other things) it will clearly wont be divided in a good way or in equal manner. you guys dont even have good basis in asking for merging those state into state 2 as in historically or demographic basis or in regards of fairness and national interest. This is complete rediculos. You dont have points in any criterias yet you are creating a big scene. please lets live and let people live. Clearly madhesis party are not acting for the people but evil interest wanting to have all the southern parts into their states creating monopoly and power over all the rest of the counrty and geo political interest Please lets live and let people live. Please live as a country and have a prosperous nation.

        • mani poudel

          I read many more, but almost all are biased. Yes we are pahade and we are madhesi we forget that we are Nepali. We love India and we love China, but forget to say we love Nepal. We fight to defend our right but forget others right to live a life.
          None of our madhesi fellow has raised an issue which could restore madhesis’ right, dignity, pride and patriotism and this is the end of open border between Nepal and India.
          I humbly request whoever read this; Madhesi people living in madhes and people across the border have same language, religion, caste and culture. In Jhapa and Ilam; people have same language and culture with the people of Darjeeling and Sikkim. Nobody can say that who is Nepali and who is Indian if we go to Birgunj or Raxaul or if we go to Kakadbhitta or Siliguri. When Nepal India border was demarcated last time, people residing at their place got their Nationality not from their origin. Many people from eastern part of Nepal went to seek their fate to Bhutan, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur and Myanmar before and after 1st world war. Many of them became victim of communal hatred and fighting and fled to Nepal but denied citizenship, few of them succeeded to get and others have fled back to India or have migrated to other western countries, among those were Bhutanese of Nepali origin. Across the southern border of Nepal, if we see the migration trend, we find more Indian people come to Nepal rather than Nepali going to India. Madhes has fertile land, more infrastructure, friendly and innocent people and more opportunity. So Indian people come and settle there and grow their business and life. We can make a sense that these people are more clever and have more relation to grow their business compare to the madhesis and other community people living in Nepal. They easily get citizenship due to our corrupt government official and political and personal interest of few leaders may be madhesi or pahadi. These new citizen have more money and inter country relation can make a good position in politics. Anybody can guess what will be their interest? Do they really love madhesi or pahadi people or something else? Who were in the frontier of pahady bhagao aandolan? It is cristal clear these neo Nepali were there to drive away pahade people from madhes. I don’t know the Indigenous madhesi people are really happy or not, but madhesi leader and the neo Nepali are very happy.
          On the other hand, people living in pahad don’t know to distinguish the people of madhes and people of across madhes. They have a sense that people of black skin are all from India. I have heard talking some well educated people like; oh he is madhesi, i thought he is nepali. Such people have damaged madhesis’ integrity upon the nation.
          Our country has a balanced and optimum number of population. If we all pursue our national interest, within few years, Nepal will become a wealthy nation no matter whatever will be the position of India. But only threat we have is open border with India. The adjoined Indian state with Nepal Bengal, Bihar and UP are the most populous states but roughly ruled states in India. Say, if only 1% people of Bihar come and settle in madhes, what will be the demography of madhes or Nepal? Madhesi people have been victimised from the security personnel across the border for one or another reason. If we regulate our open border with India, none of the pahade can say to any madhesi as Indian coz all people living in Nepal will be Nepali only. I don’t think this will hurt a true madhesi’s sentiment, but certainly hit the neo madhesi.

    • Education matters

      “But let me clear this out to you, If you ever visit a school in Madhesh; there are no books, no teachers no nothing. Now one could say there are no books and stuff in Karnali and other hills too! but, these places are inaccessible but terai? really? clearly, Ignored!”
      Terai is indeed the most accessible part on Nepal yet it remains underdeveloped in many areas (like you mentioned, Education) so does many areas in Nepal. We all know that a colossal amount of money goes towards the development of Terai (just check the budget allocation by our government). How then my friend ,Terai “clearly ignored”? Don’t you think the problem lies with how the money gets used? In most cases almost half the money goes into the pockets of our netas, khuskhors. This is a problem not only in Terai, but in entire Nepal. And this is one reason why Nepalese land is still underdeveloped even though there is so much money flowing from the government.

      • Avinash

        I agree. and I also want to add that hills need more money to for the development of Infrastructures than terai does because of the difficult terrain. Corruption is a major problem all across the country and Madhesi leaders are no knights here! I however, was trying to include the past in my statement as well. All the chure immigration and deforestation that led to “hulaki” roads being undeveloped ultimatelu affecting education in terai when it could be blooming 🙁

    • namah

      what books are there in pahad? the ones which are there – are complete shit…i mean feces smell better! having your own state will NOT solve the issue. politicians steal from ALL of us. i am against ethnic states. i believe we must force people to live together. best man wins the election.

      last elections to CA2 who won? so called pahadi parties with pahadi candidates…LOL?? why??? let us think out of the box, i am sure the youth of Nepal – think Nepal.

    • विनय राज कोइराला

      K 2-4 wata julla bhako euta pradesh banayera desh kasari chalxa ho ! Deshle kasari dhanxa !

    • nirmal

      So yu think southern belt can be developed only if they are demarked seperately excluding the parts of hilly region?? Whats the problem in including hilly parts? How are hilly parts gonna be hindrance for the development when they are included in any state… what’s the reason behind the demand of only plain area as a seperate state..?

  • Goodking

    I want to tell all madhesis what i think is the problem now. Since its time for Greater Nepal. I see This Federal Map as obstacle to achieve Greater Nepal. All the player of Greater Nepal will be more dependent on Madhesis and Tharus and if India somehow controls Madhesis and Tharus then it will be very very difficult to achieve greater Nepal which is Nepal’s right. So its not the right time to fight for this federal map. When Greater Nepal is established then definitely tharu and madhesis will get more than these territories as a good gesture. This federal map is a big thing now but it won’t be big thing when we have achieved greater Nepal. I think this is the reason why politicians are reluctant to give madhesis and thrus these territory right now. I want to suggest all the madhesis to be patient. And don’t get played by Indians. Nepals End Game is Greater Nepal. Lets all Madhesis tharu, pahadi, Newari, limbuwan “Bhai Bhai” play an active role in achiving Greater Nepal. It’s our End Game.

    ck lal and all the madasi leaders and even India knows Nepals end game is Greater Nepal. How much should madhesi youth trust people like ck lal and old madasi leaders?

  • Bipin

    Madhesis don’t want Hill districts in their province. (Basically,they don’t want to compete with Hill people in any areas. Why? Because in 1992, a Kathmandu chhetry called a madhesi ‘Dhoti’, discrimination…disgusting.)

    Madhesh wants to strip hill districts of the resources, rivers and taxes generated from Madhesh. Why? Because in 1994, a Kathmandu newar called a madhesi a ‘marsyaa’.

    Madhesh wants seats based on population, thus limiting representation of Dolpa and Mustang. But this is exactly what should be done because a Gurung didn’t pay for panipuri in 2001.

    With almost all of the resources in Madhesh, with industries, jobs, fertile land, access to market….the violent protest was very necessary because “State ignored them”. Yes, prez and vice-prez are Madhesi,chief justice from madhesh had his stint too… but there are no Madhesi army chief. Yes, unless Madhesh gets an army chief, we are not equal.

    Let us all fight for supremacy and regional interests, interests of our people, our community and not others. We know social injustice won’t be solved by writing in a constitution, but lets make social injustice a reason to fight for supremacy. Demarcation should be done, exactly how we say it. Does our demand affect people of other communities? Fuck that.
    Lets call for intervention. Lets do anything possible. Sovereignty? Lets get our communal demand first. Yes all of our demands first. Sorry what? Our acts conflicts with national interests? National interests wholly means interests of hill bahuns, lets just understand that for now. India is helping us by not helping bahuns,chhetris,newars,rai,limbu,gurung,magar,sherpa,dalits. That is a good thing, no?

    • Amit

      It is social and political discrimination. Madhesi would like to be in the position to be head of army chief yes, what’s wrong with that ? But more importantly wants madhesi in army, police, and administration. If you argue that Madhesi lacks skills and desires, then I have got nothing for you. Why are you against the aspiration of Madhesi people to get equal rights and participation in the government. Would you disagree with their demand to have equal weight age of representation in terms of number of constituency in terai vs pahad. Yes we asked for intervention as we could not stop the state security force killing our people. See HRW report which was formed by the international team. I mean international team – not India. Any resistance to the thoughts of equality is hilarious in this modern world.

  • Bikram Tamang

    Jhapa,morang and sunsari district are belongs to limbuwan state since from four father so how can it will be in madesh state . Limbuwan can’t stay by closing their eyes . Limbuwan are the original people of purba anchal of nine district

    • विनय राज कोइराला

      correct bro !

  • gaurav

    i suppose the main problem giving only the terai plain to madhesi is that,, it will be kind of ethinic division and madhesi leaders will have great influence over whole part and India can play major role there,, as rajendra mahato like leaders where supporting that there are 1 crore indians in nepal.. is that true? do you yourself feel as indians? isn’t this a fight or protest to be called all madhesis from dhotis to dai/bhai i.e, “fight for equality then why you need sepration”…
    so we need to live together and you should fight for your right but not with help of inida or leaders like rajendra mahato as they are looking only thier benefit,, not for solving the problem of madhes whether that is intra-discrimination or inter-discrimination

  • gaurav

    fight for equality,education,development but fighting for more land is nonsense guys if you are educated,,, first have courage to develop what you got,, running behind these greedy leaders is really disgusting..

  • veds rokzz

    Think as a Nepali not as a Madhesi.. Your total article was Madesh centric not Nepal centric.

  • Brian Ghilliotti

    The CIA is going to have a good time with this. If they see India being pulled into the orbit of the BRICS, they will do whatever they can to find something to set off a disturbance between India and China, including aggravating border problems, destabilizing Pak, and perhaps boosting the largest Communist insurgency still in the world, India’s Naxalites…only thing holding them up is that no one in that filthy organization knows Central Indian or Himalayan dialects.